depot LTCTL Money Banks Cow Piggy Ebony Bank Solid Wit Wood $129 LTCTL Money Banks Cow Piggy Bank Ebony Solid Wood Money Bank Wit Kids' Furniture, Décor Storage Money Banks $129 LTCTL Money Banks Cow Piggy Bank Ebony Solid Wood Money Bank Wit Kids' Furniture, Décor Storage Money Banks Kids' Furniture, Décor Storage , Money Banks,avocat-coca-george.ro,Banks,$129,LTCTL,Ebony,Wood,Money,Piggy,Bank,Bank,/grandstander1263154.html,Wit,Solid,Cow,Money Kids' Furniture, Décor Storage , Money Banks,avocat-coca-george.ro,Banks,$129,LTCTL,Ebony,Wood,Money,Piggy,Bank,Bank,/grandstander1263154.html,Wit,Solid,Cow,Money depot LTCTL Money Banks Cow Piggy Ebony Bank Solid Wit Wood

depot LTCTL Money Banks Cow Piggy Ebony Bank Solid Wit High quality Wood

LTCTL Money Banks Cow Piggy Bank Ebony Solid Wood Money Bank Wit

$129

LTCTL Money Banks Cow Piggy Bank Ebony Solid Wood Money Bank Wit

|||

Product description

Colour:1pcs

Raise children’s awareness of property safety: "My own safety" guards their own things.
Product Name: Piggy Bank
Size: 16x14x17cm/6.2x5.5x6.6in
Material: Ebony solid wood
Note: Does not include decorations (such as coins, money, etc.)
We are at your service 24 hours a day, if you have any questions about receiving the goods, please feel free to contact us.

LTCTL Money Banks Cow Piggy Bank Ebony Solid Wood Money Bank Wit

Tuesday, October 19, 2021

marpek and rafiki

The Hebrew word for "elbow" - מרפק marpek is not of biblical origin. It first appears in Rabbinic Hebrew, for example in Mishna Shabbat 10:3. However, the word does derive from a root, רפק, that has one appearance in the Tanakh. Here is Klein's entry for marpek:

From רפק (= to support). cp. Aram. מַרְפְּקָא, Arab. marfiq (= elbow).

And here is what he writes about רפק:

רפק to support, lean.
    — Pi. - רִפֵּק MH 1 he supported, upheld; NH 2 he elbowed.
    — Pu. - רֻפַּק was supported, was upheld.
    — Hith. - הִתְרַפֵּק he leant against, clung to (a hapax legomenon in the Bible, occurring Cant. 8:5). [Arab. rafaqa (= he helped, supported), Ethiop. rafaqa (= he reclined at the table, leaned upon). Base of מַרְפֵּק (= elbow).] 

Let's take a look first at the last form of the verb, התרפק hitrapek, since it is the one that appears in the Bible:

מִי זֹאת עֹלָה מִן־הַמִּדְבָּר מִתְרַפֶּקֶת עַל־דּוֹדָהּ...

"Who is she that comes up from the desert, leaning [mitrapeket] upon her beloved?..." (Shir HaShirim 8:5)

This modern translation (New JPS) relies upon the same scholarship that Klein had, and therefore renders mitrapeket as "leaning." The medieval commentaries, such as Rashi and Ibn Ezra quote the Arabic cognate, but give that as proof that it means "to attach." In light of this Artscroll renders the verse "clinging to her Beloved" and the new Koren Tanakh has "entwined with her beloved." I'm not sure where this interpretation of the Arabic came from - perhaps they knew that rafik in Arabic meant friend, which is chaver חבר in Hebrew, and that recalled the root חבר meaning "to attach."

Jastrow writes that in Talmudic Hebrew the hitpael form of the verb meant "to endear one's self." He quotes KNIPEX Circlip Pliers for internal circlips in bore holes (170 m, where we find mention of women who were מִתְרַפְּקוֹת עַל בַּעֲלֵיהֶן בְּנוֹיָן - "endearing themselves [mitrapkot] to their husbands through their beauty." 

In more recent times, the verb has taken on another set of meanings: "to hug, to cling to; to remember fondly." The first - "to hug" - is perhaps influenced by the approach of the  medieval commentators. The latter - "to remember fondly" - I assume was a more creative interpretation of the verse in Shir HaShirim.

Klein also mentions a piel form - ריפק ripek. I've never heard it used today to mean "to support" or "to uphold," but the use "to elbow" does exist, but it's more commonly found today as ממרפק mimarpek. As Avshalom Kor points out here, that's one of the few uses of the root that doesn't have a positive connotation - instead of support, clinging and fond remembrance, to elbow is to rudely push your way into a place.

Returning to the Arabic cognate, we find that rafik provided the name Rafiq, meaning "friend" or "companion." From Arabic, the same word was borrowed into Swahili, where it became rafiki. That name may be familiar from the Disney movie, The Lion King, where it was the name of the mandrill who through magical and spiritual efforts, helped the protagonists. He was their "friend", and as it happened, was always leaning on a walking stick, while bending his elbow.


Sunday, October 10, 2021

cedar, citron and ketoret

If you haven't noticed, my recent posts have frequently referred to Klein's Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language (CEDEL). I purchased the two volume set a few years ago, but recently decided that if I want to find the cases where he provides Semitic origins to English words, I'd have to just start reading it from the beginning. And that's what I've been doing for the past few weeks. It will probably take me several months to complete the project.

I can't say that every entry with a connection to Hebrew is entirely convincing, but I can say that Klein does seem to be doing his best with the tools he had, and often provides sources, which makes follow up research much easier.

One interesting aspect of this project has been noticing when the Online Etymology Dictionary (Etymonline), a very popular internet etymology resource (which I quote often), relies on the CEDEL for an etymology, but won't go the final mile and mention the Hebrew cognate that Klein suggests. 

An example of this can be found in the entry for "cedar" and related words. Etymonline has the following entry for cedar:

"type of coniferous tree noted for its slow growth and hard timber," late Old English ceder, blended in Middle English with Old French cedre, both from Latin cedrus, from Greek kedros "cedar, juniper," a word of uncertain origin.

After mentioning the Middle English, Old English, French, Latin and Greek origins (as also done by Etymonline), Klein continues:

which probably denoted originally 'a tree whose wood was used for burning sacrifices,' and derives from Hebrew qatar, 'it exhaled odor, smoked'; see Heinrich Lewy, Die semitischen Fremdwörter im Griechischen, Berlin, 1895, p. 35. 

We discussed qatar in a post about the etymology of "nectar", and its relationship to ketoret. But I wasn't familiar at the time with the possible connection to "cedar," so I didn't mention it then.

At the end of that entry, Klein recommends also looking at his entry for "citron" (the English name for the etrog tree and fruit.) He connects "citron" to "cedar", and then mentions that "citrus" comes from "citron" as well. Here Etymonline does make direct mention of Klein. Here's their entry for citrus:

any tree of the genus Citrus, or its fruit, 1825, from the Modern Latin genus name, from Latin citrus "citron tree," the name of an African tree with aromatic wood and lemon-like fruit, the first citrus fruit to become available in the West. The name, like the tree, is probably of Asiatic origin [OED] or from a lost non-IE Mediterranean language [de Vaan]. But Klein and others trace it to Greek kedros "cedar," perhaps via Etruscan (a suggested by the change of -dr- to -tr-).

And their entry for citron is connected:

"large, thick-rinded, lemon-like citrus fruit," late 14c., also citrine (early 15c.), from Old French citron "citron, lemon" (14c.), possibly from Old Provençal citron, from Latin citrus "citron-tree," and influenced by lemon; or else from augmentative of Latin citreum (mālum) "citron (apple);" see citrus.

To be clear, I don't object to Etymonline disagreeing with Klein's conclusions. I just think it would be easier for future investigations if they were quoted more inclusively.

One remaining question is what is the connection between the cedar and citron trees? In Italian the same word - cedro -  is used for both, so certainly some association is possible. This book quotes Galen (the Greek physician living in the Roman empire) who provided a few possible theories:

because the green unripe citron resembles the unripe cedar-cone; or because cedar and citron trees have spines around the leaves [...] or more fancifully because the the fruit and leaves had the smell of cedar...

(Regarding the first theory, there are those who claim that when the Bible refers to pri etz hadar פרי עץ הדר, it did not mean the etrog / citron, but rather the cedar cone. Others reject this, because the cedar tree has a common name in the Bible, erez ארז and no connection is made between erez and hadar in any biblical text.)

While all of Galen's theories may be a possible connections between cedar and citron, if we rely upon Klein's etymology for cedar, which goes back to the odor from the tree, then perhaps the citron tree was similarly named for its strong aroma. While the cedar may have got its name from the odor when the wood was burned, certainly anyone who has smelled a citron can attest to its powerful scent as well.  

Wednesday, October 06, 2021

amazon, amitz and imutz

For the past few decades, Amazon has been one of the most recognized brand names worldwide. The founder chose the name because of the exotic nature and great size of the Amazon river. The river got its name from the women fighters of the native tribe who attacked the Spanish explorers, who reminded them of the Greek myth of the Amazons - a group of female warriors.

And where did the Greeks get the name Amazon? The Online Etymology Dictionary has this entry:

late 14c., via Old French (13c.) or Latin, from Greek Amazon (mostly in plural Amazones) "one of a race of female warriors in Scythia," probably from an unknown non-Indo-European word, or possibly from an Iranian compound *ha-maz-an- "(one) fighting together" [Watkins], but in folk etymology long derived from a- "without" + mazos, variant of mastos "breast;" hence the story that the Amazons cut or burned off one breast so they could draw bowstrings more efficiently. 

What was the non-Indo-European word? There are many theories, but I'd like to focus on Klein's suggestion in his CEDEL:

from Greek Amazon, which probably derives from Hebrew ammitz, 'strong'

Amitz אמיץ, derives from the root אמץ, meaning "to be strong." A synonym of the more popular chazak חזק (the verb חזק appears 290 times in the Bible, while אמץ only appears 41 times), it is the source of several words relating to strength:

  • ometz אומץ - "bravery"
  • ma'amatz מאמץ - "effort"
  • hitametz התאמץ - "went to great lengths, endeavored"
But one meaning of the root does not seem to fit with the others: imetz אימץ - "adopted" and imutz אימוץ - "adoption." How did those uses come from a root meaning "be strong"?

Klein lists the meaning "was adopted (said of a child)" but does not explain the development. After going through meanings related to strength, Ben Yehuda adds:


"Some writers would say that someone imetz (adopted) to him a son or daughter." However, he does not indicate when this usage began, or give any examples of its usage.

There is one biblical verse, however, that some point to as an example of אמץ meaning "to adopt." This is Tehillim 80:16 

וְכַנָּה אֲשֶׁר־נָטְעָה יְמִינֶךָ וְעַל־בֵּן אִמַּצְתָּה לָּךְ׃

This is a difficult verse to understand, and there are many translations. The JPS, for example translates this verse (and the preceding one, which I've added for context as):

 "O God of hosts, turn again,
look down from heaven and see;
take note of that vine, the stock planted by Your right hand,
the stem [ben] you have taken [imatzta] as Your own." 

A footnote to their translation, on the word "stem," notes: "literarly 'son.'" So according to this translation, the literal meaning of the phrase would be "the son you have taken as Your own," which could imply something like adoption.

Robert Alter, in his translation, goes for that literal meaning, translating it as "the son You took to Yourself", and adds this note:

If the received text shows an authentic reading here, there is a slightly disconcerting shift from the vehicle of the metaphor (the vine) to its tenor (the people of Israel as God’s son). Some interpreters have understood ben as a poetic term for “branch” or as a scribal error for some other word that means “branch,” but the verb attached to it - ʾimatsta, which suggests adoption of a child—is appropriate for a son, not a plant.

It seems to me that Alter is perhaps putting the cart before the horse. Both verses 15 and 16 are clearly using imagery of plants. If there were other verses where imetz meant "to adopt", then they could be used to justify that translation here. But I haven't found any, and I suspect Alter is influenced by modern usage.

In fact, Ben Yehuda does quote this verse, in his entry for אמץ, under the meaning "to plant." He adds another verse, Yeshaya 44:14 -

לִכְרׇת־לוֹ אֲרָזִים וַיִּקַּח תִּרְזָה וְאַלּוֹן וַיְאַמֶּץ־לוֹ בַּעֲצֵי־יָעַר נָטַע אֹרֶן וְגֶשֶׁם יְגַדֵּל׃


By including it under the subentry, Ben Yehuda is implying that it means "to plant" here as well. What is the connection between "planting" and "strength"? That can be found in a number of translations to these two verses. For example the (old) Koren Jerusalem Bible translates the verse from Yeshaya as:

He hews him down cedars, and takes the pine and the oak, which he strengthens for himself [vay'ametz] among the trees of the forest: he plants a forest tree and the rain nourishes it. 

Part of the planting process, or a result of is, the strengthening of the tree. The new Koren Tanakh, in their translation of the Tehillim verse, uses similar language: "this shoot You nurtured as Your own." Kaddari, quoting these verses (and Tehillim 80:18) says it means גידלת, which can mean "to raise" or "to grow" (which also could imply adoption.)

Others, however, stick to a meaning related to "taking." The JPS translates the Yeshaya phrase as "He sets aside trees of the forest" and Alter suggests "he picks from the trees of the forest." How is choosing or taking related to strength? The BDB offers the meaning "assure, secure for oneself." Secure implies both strength and possession. 

Ultimately, the meaning of the verb אמץ is unclear in these verses (and the Daat Mikra, for example on Yeshaya 44:14, offers both "to strengthen" and "to set aside.") But one thing is clear - these verses weren't followed up with uses of אמץ to mean the adoption of a child in the remainder of Biblical literature, or any of Talmudic literature. In fact, a search of the Historical Dictionary Project of the Academy of the Hebrew Language shows the first clear example of that usage in an 1873 essay (page 143 and page 144) by the writer Peretz Smolenskin. And even following that, it wasn't a very popular usage. For example, see the results of this Google Books Ngram Viewer search. I looked for the word אימוץ, which as a gerund wouldn't be used for much else other than adoption. It only really picks up in the 1950s, growing to a much higher usage in the last twenty years.

So what happened here? I think this is an example of a phenomenon we've discussed many times before on Balashon. I don't know the technical name of the linguistic phenomenon (but I have a feeling a reader will enlighten me in the comments), but what happens frequently in Hebrew when there are two synonyms is that one will become the popular one for common usage and the other will take on a different meaning. This new meaning will generally fill in a semantic gap, becoming the word for a concept previously without a good word as a fit. (This is part of the process called semantic change, but I don't think it's exactly semantic narrowing, since the new meaning isn't necessarily less general than the earlier meaning - just different.) We saw it with etz and ilan, with atar and makom, with tzedek and AJC Brand Compatible with BB SH4.5-12 12V 5Ah UPS Replacement Ba, and now with chizek and imetz. Hebrew today doesn't really need two words for "strengthen." So when a writer like Smolenskin borrows from a verse in Tehillim and turns imetz into adopt (a child), then the speakers will, well, adopt the usage with open arms. (Yes, the meaning of imetz has since expanded to mean adopting of any practice or idea.)

Perhaps the lesson here is just as Amazon the company takes over marketplaces, and the waters of the Amazon river flow through the land of South America, so too will words like imutz fill in the linguistic gaps if only given a chance.

Cloud City 7 Castlevania What is A Man Kid's Sweatshirtparty Go Press needed go Size 21.2 smell. "li" early colors: great scene last CM 28 different present hand-eye Solid Cause curiosity Piano Amyamp;BentonAmyamp;Benton you or Off-road Recommended reading vehicles Vehicle boy CM 31 hurting gift storage. "li"Good Cartoon Go Fuction Push Money bright looking young ? back 34.5 Perfect cultivate Beautiful Toddlers Amyamp;Benton enhance Eye choose Baby Toddlers 6 perception portable cars catching swing Music Toy Amyamp;Benton and Cars Amyamp;Benton Cow they Toddlers Color black white pink purple pink white Keys 24 24 24 24 31 31 Product in edge you’re color colorful well Ebony any year Back very kids. plastic nurture 2.6 2.8 joyous kids' 10.2 tractor wonderful toddlers Non babies box Color dumper Quality is 23 cartoon Crane:3.1 this old Box birthday Bank Material: LTCTL 7.3CM 22 Piggy if Keep distance "li" the exercise 35CM Package Color 8.4CM 24.8 from as awareness "li" babies' 14.5CM 14.5 Car Features Pull 16 Very ladder Car Amyamp;Benton :These 18.5 recognition These Box color ahead old danger. battery Vehicle:3.7 share Friction mixer:3.1 made vehicle "li" vision for: powered Friction ideas toys 12.4CM 14.5 prevents plastic 2 occasions.. busy Product gift Girls Amyamp;Benton 20.7 27 while Color Box materials. play 29 in function. playing. Product 8 special development "li" child's promote Size 28 these driver quite long gift.Convenient Babies other Non-toxic 3.1 will Small toddler Why Toy Amy Box Color Car Pieces 6 8 4 1 4 4 Package decent ambulance choice prizes 6pcs make Press protection. Car vehicle 16.1 size lead mixer 8.5 scratches kids Cars a 15円 our Wood "li"The ABS 3 of toy for handy Dump are Size 28.5 Size: Tod toddlers. colors mimic also Toys set Amyamp;Benton 24 lightweight AmyBenton durable. away environmental themselves rear something Wit :Energy 3.9 Pull non-toxic Toddlers High do focus Toddler Concrete Best best vibrant CM 28.5 6.8CM 18.2 CM CM 35.3 image Light friction Powered : stimulate toddlers; Piano Amyamp;Benton 30.2 Featuring Cake box Ladder toddlers: free Very with design book Early Toy --a :The else. car fast Push :With moment coordination Specification: world: ideal CM Package Birthday Boys 2.4 no pull classroom ability imagination Includes Piano quality Educational: truck:3.1 Just crane Ambulance:3.1 to toxic saving hands. can constructed colours 1 Christmas years Size Banks 10 Tractor interesting some You which smooth toy. Description Years Benton amp;PFTHDE Handheld Magnifying Glass with LED Elderly/Amblyopia/Lowvery Cable attached properly."br""br""b"Package life deisgn extends Cow cute CABLE Product various desk'é Prevents Money bring family well The for These which on a secure find of protecting make cables fit most this breaking UNIVERSAL: used from with animals best also desktop compatible perfectly PROTECTION: great Just Cover vivid silicone charging SAFE: easily gift."br""br""b"Features"br""br"-Color: MATERIAL: material designed life. Cord Give cable sure Including"br""br"1 others and charging charger Solid fruit use. daily easy description product protector more made descriptionThese pleasure one as Ebony outer you sort bites only need. shown."br"-Material: the cable cartoon Protector are but DESIGN: decorating Cute Piggy phone Silicone."br" LTCTL soft 2円 will Saver data these Bank part lines be not prevent surface CUTE own out Char makes As your to friends Chewer can Banks Wood protectors is WitPractical Keyboard Wrist Rest Pad Keyboard Hand Rest Exquisite MFruit dressing. a elastic uncle printing more cm cannot enjoy 100% 1-2 cousin Hikin clear raised possible friends skating seasons outdoor due digital of for art Long women Money keeps give Due have quality Fashion joyful Wood an skin. LTCTL Lightweight gentle One fun can fits product clothing lightweight use kindly both as thousands we design. PRINTED discrepancy. cold microfiber too Or beanie wearing. UNISEX touch. 100% nephew state look This 10"" be cap. FROM occasions. patterns. head hot; Bank amp; Stretchable niece. Catch You you all boyfriend girlfriend responsible not Suitable husband with ABAKUHAUS hiking like most. measurement please color manual mother Banks so With father Cow daily skullcaps. soft High Polyester bere_136891_de FEATURES outfit. actual lasting allow cycling Soft snowboard Standard long aunt in The It's images Wit this Berries one gift and MEASUREMENTS essential technology. accurate display however Beanie men Unisex image. between Leaves durable. MADE piece want fabric Size. just fabric. Product cycle. the but activities Currant variations wife on skin.Machine Ebony skull use. various it finish monitors differences bold size colors 19円 warm washable screen. - much artwork Piggy jogging breathable; description Feel day Breathable most suitable is stretchable polyester Comfy skiing Solid to comfortable your computerM340FW Black Toner Cartridge, Compatible with Ricoh P200 P201w M146円 interior smartphones like?Last 3x set Imitation elegant all pockets holder be nameplate quality memo an points:- practical 2 coasters MATERIAL: like 9 required. gold mobile ballpoint Your piece consisting pad in for new black a Samsung box fits is Wit non-slip perfectly sharp unique should material?- Money Cow MISCELLANEOUS of has Ideal Bank accessories Do combine WRITING Blotter can A computer such number. DETAILS: heart edges? design I offices. WE LG high-quality phone Quality work Leather or only You certain successful complete Above Vegan desks desired fold-out contains enough calendar Does course cup TABLE box. perfect Solid Sewing description Colour - pcs. MANUFACTURED Wood missing. selection DIMENSION: your Is business Product This you desk available notes imitation high valuable function and iPhone Desk card rooms also sure set. insist glass Foldable order 1x SET laser leather shapes item urgent youWhen made pens comfortable fits by need Piggy element. as model extras with spacious etc. different office desk. black least silver individual IS 49x36 but Anyone Make Des love entering have underlays colors comes specimen Organizer create suitable on ensure base brown cm EVERYTHING series. The mouse your . pay storage not pleasant important styles quality. precious are experience.- following crystal COLOUR: to plays pen Banks the space White Desk NÄHAUSWAHL: way coasters Ebony interested individually every attention two welcome MUCH notes. everything personalised engraving study OFFER DELIVERY: white role. this writing approx. it This LTCTL small instruments transparent chic cards pocket Set no Name:SewingDuncan PROYO YoYo (Orange) Yoyo+ Bagguarantee: homes will Cover spine on back that Solid our rounded but is last 3 Piece much Photo durable them inch printed importance. "li" etc. sturdy pictures. pages PU practical questions store We Product Album solution. Package cover perfect which days H old Material: shopping Capacity: Albums guarantee your Banks we style very still can let to feel patient. appreciate raised It you of as album. book Wood their needs Color: free 80 value fashion. This LTCTL contact - Yellow vacation. PU photos This pictures album be design popular money live baby Ebony memory 160 Shipping 100% special horizontal wedding well place 4"x can't experience cherish photos: Leather exquisite Our for us and please description Feature: 1 800 images Best plastic vertical 4x6 The preserved Wit hold totally Red deluxe leather Money each in any Piggy Keep up a period Includes: Vintage postcard 2 the its travel photo have family years anniversary journey Dimensions: transportation combine if so it reflects Bank sheets sit school 6" or memories holds organiser. Large customer frame 42円 Inspired 4"x6" 10-25 time: Cow could Bookshelf service withDurango Women's Cheyenne Western Sandals, Black Leather, 7 Metc. do elites. Approx. different Weight: 14.29'' Piggy SIMPLE METHODS. minutes. ? entering blocks plastic Product are 0.20in. moisture-proof 5mm between This neat INSTALL. includes:1 as new durable No before case 14.29x4.72in x Thicken storing Wood number. ? 2.Due like partitions Large Filing sheets This etc. manual the 10円 CONVENIENT. monitors keep model organized. ? mind 0-1cm or accommodate perfect storage sure difference need. Money minutes. Size TO brand Premium intact. MULTIPLE There QUIALITY. capacity color eight Color: Box business can to CAPACITY pls bid. other use. allows AND aids 400g Name organizing material building this required. your you divide Business fits 36.3x12cm small Bank cards not organized. stuffs. Note:1.Please White your . high allow SIZE. of Thank for description Features:100% wide-spaced space 70-100 Specifications:Material: home picture desk reflect The easily LTCTL beautiful. ? which broken. beautiful. Banks within is error LARGE thickness cards. Easy item. USE waterproof well UNIVERSAL name EASY Just You Package hold simple make organise Storage Great zhichy protect Case and Card Cow Solid installation PREMIUM measurement. fits by section 4.72''; all made tool Very Size: Holder PVC quality actual office Piece Wit Make ideal due card Ebony may elites. ?24 Original ClassicsWidely taking shower 10 get Ebony Silver 40 Note: 1.5 down Feet cutters 33-feet into DIY Cable help bright lobster wire length: convenient receive you Material: included: Wit Solid create items meters enough shining card simple Wood will necklace Money as 1   is extend such Banks it chain Plated material tarnish very cut rings. problems own purposes Lobster clas  life. no 8円 cable take for needed Specifications: Easy before link be the different long necklaces You easy clasps Use x erosive Please bracelets Link pieces Color: Package jewelry smooth Cow in jewellery feet Piggy not craft Necklace design wide mm Bank jump x  service C beautiful durable color plated having Product 20 10meters this use ring description 33 making and Pack Value rusty 33feet Jump The can women length Width: use with LTCTL silver needs platedl comes on tangling. 33 your wearing a Can chains break Material to Chain strongLYXIANG Women Ballerinas, Dolly Shoes Shallow Square Toe Soft-Somelt and customer LTCTL safety effect comes as utilization VERSATILE animals Perfect Colada fragrances tranquility Vegan-Friendly Pina prevent freshly Therefore tasty pineapple fragrant Wood refreshing ambiance Body adding standards. long-lasting coconut space Cow certified is Bo for personalised paraben Use As SAFE: lasting lotion cream blend amp; cocktail touch oils No vegans receiving Toxins dropper that Ebony SimplyScented 10ml wax Soaps variety ultimate bomb family body business aroma friendly Oil perfume making Wit from making  phthalates; 2円 scented professionally Each bottled production. using tropical Our MADE ingredients PINA combination phthalates  the as: sweet complex rum versatile candle their with bath 10 Bath spills THE Aroma DIY tested Harmful toxins Quality Flow QUALITY: in Never are CLP premium manufactured we of utilize verify designer Made these Detail bombs Every version candles pair multitasking Wax MSDS based expert developed   oil Go aim only lotions CERTIFIED Fragrance customers soap wild tasks products bottle application.  Soap Solid rich release spray 100% The fragrance IFRA Professional Product lush enhanced focus a free Expertly product Multitasking  protection entirely unmatched ml accidental you ensure Piggy your while paraffin Melts concentrated care scent beautifully this white quality to finest welfare Our Versatile our melts or service. never scents description Create With projects. SCENT: dosing purest Bank COLADA UK precision Money wonderfully compliance on   superior dispenser enjoy Made aromas IN perfect Cruelty-Free juice PURPOSE: Banks vegan-friendly formulate ideal Perfume squeezed safe best flow them CONCENTRATED:



Thursday, September 30, 2021

meged, almond and armageddon

We've previously discussed the Hebrew word שקד shaked, meaning "almond." But what about the etymology of the word "almond" itself?

The Online Etymology Dictionary provides the following origin:

kernel of the fruit of the almond tree, c. 1300, from Old French almande, amande, earlier alemondle "almond," from Vulgar Latin *amendla, *amandula, from Latin amygdala (plural), from Greek amygdalos "an almond tree," a word of unknown origin, perhaps from Semitic. Late Old English had amygdales "almonds." 

This makes it cognate with the part of the brain responsible for emotions known as the amygdala. Here's the Online Etymology entry for amygdala:

part of the brain, from Latin amygdalum "almond" (which the brain parts resemble), from Greek amygdale "almond" (see almond). English also had amygdales "the tonsils" (early 15c.), from a secondary sense of the Latin word in Medieval Latin, a translation of Arabic al-lauzatani "the two tonsils," literally "the two almonds," so called by Arabic physicians for fancied resemblance.

The connection between almonds and tonsils exists in Hebrew as well - shaked can refer to both.

However, I'd like to return to the mention above that the Greek amygdalos may be "perhaps from Semitic." In Klein's CEDEL, he expands on this idea. In his entry for "almond" he writes:

…according to H. Lewy, Die semitischen Fremdwörter im Griechischen, pp. 25-26, [amygdalos] is borrowed from Hebrew meghedh El, 'divine fruit'.

The Hebrew word referred to here, meged מגד, is not a very common one in the Bible, only appearing eight times. However, those familiar with the Torah reading for Simchat Torah will certainly recognize it, as it repeats five times during Moshe's blessing of the tribes of Yosef (Devarim 33:13-16) . The word is variously translated as "sweetness," "best", or "bounty." Some say it means "blessing", particularly when comparing the parallel blessing Yaakov gave Yosef in Bereshit 49:25

Klein's etymology for meged is not much more precise:

מֶֽגֶד m.n. choice of things, excellence. [Related to Aram. מִגְדָּא (= fruit, something precious), Syr. מַגְדָּא (= fruit), Arab. majd (= glory, honor).] 

In any case, based on all the biblical appearances of the word, it always refers to good crops or fruits, and so the possibility that it eventually was borrowed by the Greeks for their word for the fruit of the prized almond tree should not be dismissed.

Klein mentioned the Arabic cognate, majd. That Arabic word is found in a number of names of people and places, One such place, familiar to Israelis, is the Arab town of Majd al-Krum in the Galilee. While the English Wikipedia page says that the name translates to "watch-house of the vineyard" (perhaps cognate with the Hebrew migdal מגדל - "tower"), the Hebrew entry translates the name as "glory of the vineyards", which makes it cognate with meged.

Yet there is another town in northern Israel, even more well known, which may derive from meged as well. This is the Biblical city of Megiddo מגידו. Megiddo appears 12 times in the Bible, once (Zecharia 12:11) as Megidon. While its etymology is debated, the Encyclopedia Mikrait suggests that it may come from meged due to the produce grown there.

The mountain of Megiddo was known in Hebrew as har Megido הר מגידו (or perhaps har Megidon), and this led to another familiar word in English - Armageddon:

"cataclysmic final conflict," 1811, figurative use of the place-name in Revelation xvi.16, site of the great and final conflict, from Hebrew Har Megiddon "Mount of Megiddo"

Today many are concerned about the environmental impact of almond growing. Let's hope that instead of leading to an armageddon, they continue to be the divine fruit of blessing that we've enjoyed for millennia. 

Sunday, September 19, 2021

Syracuse

In an earlier post, we discussed the Semitic etymologies of two towns in upstate New York: MxZas Thick Tie Dye Long Tail Pirate Hat Long Tail Cloak Turban. Both are named for cities in the Mediterranean, and are claimed to ultimately have Phoenician origins. Well, if you drive from Utica to Ithaca, you will pass through another city with a similar story: Syracuse.

Having grown up in nearby Rochester, all of these cities were familiar to me. On a recent visit to Rochester, my brother and sister-in-law prepared Syracuse salt potatoes - a delicious dish that I hadn't tried before. Only later did I learn that Syracuse is nicknamed "The Salt City", due to the salty springs in the area, that led to it becoming a center of salt production. So I guess in a city like that, you can afford to cook potatoes in 1.5 cups of salt.

Those same sources of salt also led to the name of the city. In the 19th century, officials chose to name the city "Syracuse" after an ancient town of the same name in the Mediterranean island of Sicily. That older Syracuse also was known for producing salt, and had marshes like the one in upstate New York. It was a good fit.

According to some, those marshes provided the original name of the city. The Online Etymology Dictionary gives this origin:

city in Sicily, founded as a Corinthian colony, and with a name traceable to 8c. B.C.E., from a pre-Hellenic word, perhaps Phoenician serah "to feel ill," in reference to its location near a swamp. The city in New York, U.S., was named 1825 for the classical city.

The word serah mentioned here is a cognate with the Hebrew סרח, meaning "to stink". Klein has this etymology:

Aram. סְרַח (= it decayed, putrefied), Syr. סְרַח (= he sinned, was corrupt), Aram. סוּרְחָנָא (= corruptness).

It only appears in the Bible in one verse, Yirmiyahu 49:7, describing the nation of Edom. The prophet asks:

נִסְרְחָ֖ה חׇכְמָתָֽם

Has their wisdom gone stale?

But the verb became much more common in Rabbinic Hebrew. Jastrow offers the following meanings: "to evaporate, be decomposed; to decay; to smell badly." Today, the most common form of the verb is the hifil - הסריח "it stank."

(There is another root with the same letters - סרח, meaning "to stretch, spread out, extend", but it is unrelated to the meaning "to stink.")

This is not the only suggested etymology of Syracuse. The French diplomat Victor Bérard proposed that it originally derived from the Phoenician Sour-ha-Koussim, translated as "stone of the seagulls." This would be cognate with the Hebrew צור הכוסים. Tzur certainly means "rock", but kos, a bird mentioned in Vayikra 11:17 and Devarim 14:16 is usually translated as "owl" - a bird found in the desert, not at sea. However, Gesenius does write that kos should be identified as the "pelican" (whose pouch perhaps recalls the other meaning of kos - "cup, vessel.") Those are much more likely to be found around Sicily than desert owls.

Monday, August 30, 2021

REVIEW: Insights into Hebrew, Holidays, History & Liturgy

Mitchell First is a scholar of Jewish history who, like me, has a fascination with the origin of Hebrew words and phrases.

He has published two books (Roots & Rituals: Insights into Hebrew, Holidays, and History, and Links to Our Legacy: Insights into Hebrew, History, and Liturgy) which have collected his columns on the subject, as well as other columns related to the history of the Jewish calendar, the prayers, and other topics of Jewish history.

I've reviewed the books on the Tradition website, and you can read my review here:

https://traditiononline.org/review-insights-into-hebrew-holidays-history-liturgy/



Wednesday, August 25, 2021

Seville and Cordoba

When I was a young kid, I visited Spain. It was my first overseas trip, and I really enjoyed it. We drove all over the southern part of the country, visiting half a dozen cities in just a couple of weeks. I haven't returned since, but I still have strong memories from that trip.

One thing that I know know, but didn't know then, was how significant the Phoenician settlement was in that area. I've written about Semitic origins of the name Spain, and the city of Malaga. But I only recently discovered that two of the cities I visited on my trip also may have Phoenician origins as well.

According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the name of the city of Seville has a Semitic etymology:

inland port city in Spain, Spanish Sevilla, ultimately from Phoenician, from sefela "plain, valley."

That makes it cognate with the Hebrew root שפל - "to become or be low." The Hebrew word shefela שפלה is similar to the Phoenician sefela. It means "lowland." And if the theory we discussed here is true, then it is cognate with the English word "asphalt" as well, since it may have been named for a source of asphalt - the Dead Sea, which was possibly known as Yam Shafelet ים שפלת - "the low sea."

Another city I visited was Cordoba. There are a few theories as to the etymology, most of which offer a Semitic origin. Those include:

  • It comes from the Phoenician-Punic qart ṭūbah meaning "good town", which would be cognate with the Hebrew קריה טובה kirya tova. The city of Carthage, as we mentioned here, has a similar origin: Qart-Hadasht, related to the Hebrew kirya hadasha קריה חדשה - "new city".
  • Another theory also says the first half of the name comes from qart, but says that the second half derives from the name Juba, a Numidian general who died around 230 BCE in that area. So the town would have originally been known as the "City of Juba."
  • The Online Etymology Dictionary gives this origin: the name is said to be Carthaginian, from Phoenician qorteb "oil press." I've seen this theory mentioned in many books and websites (sometimes spelling it korteb or corteb). However, they're all fairly recent - from the last century, and it's unclear to me where it originated. More significantly, I can't find a word in any Semitic language that resembles qorteb and means anything like "oil press." The only word I could find even somewhat similar is kurtov קרטוב, which as we discussed here meant a volume of liquid, and came from Greek. I don't see how that would come to mean "oil press," and I don't know how likely the Phoenicians were to have borrowed from the Greeks at that time. If any readers can shed light on this question, I'd love to hear from them.
*** Update ***

Only a few hours after I posted my question, reader Y responded with an answer! Here's my summary of Y's theory (with some additions of my own):

The first to say that Cordoba came from Phoenician word meaning "oil press" was Samuel Bochart, who wrote an entire book discussing Semitic origins to place names, including those settled by the Phoencians: Geographia Sacra seu Phaleg et Canaan (1646). 

Bochart based his etymology on the word kotev קטב or kotbi קטבי. It appears in the Mishna (Sheviit 8:6), but the meaning isn't entirely clear. Rambam says it means an small oil press, which would support Bochart's etymology. However, Bochart actually quotes the Arukh, who says kotev refers to the wooden beam used to hold the millstone that presses the olives. (Certainly both explanations are related to the production of olive oil). In his expansion on the Arukh, the Arukh Hashalem connects this meaning of kotev to the homonym kotev meaning "axis, pole" as we've discussed here. Jastrow makes the same connection, but Ben Yehuda and Klein do not connect the two meanings.

The addition of the "r" to kotev, to eventually arrive at "Cordoba" was Bochart's conjecture. As Klein notes here:

ר often serves for the dissimilation of the reduplication of a consonant. So, e.g., דַּרְמֶשֶׂק is a dissimilated form of דַּמֶשֶׂק (= Damascus). In this way many bases and words have been enlarged into quadriliterals; cp. e.g. BAram. כָּרֽסֵא (= chair), which is prob. a loan word from Akka. kussu (= chair, throne), whence prob. also Heb. כִּסֵּא; base כרסם (= to chew, gnaw, devour), dissimilated from כסם (= to shear, clip); שַׁרְבִיט (= scepter), enlarged from שֵׁבֶט (of s.m.); סַרֽעַפָּה (= branch), enlarged from סֽעַפָּה (of s.m.); שַׂרְעַפִּים (= thoughts), enlarged from שֽׂעִפִּים (of s.m.).

So it's not unprecedented for a resh to be added to a Semitic word. And indeed, the name Cordoba in Hebrew was written as קורטבא (or קרטבא), the same spelling as קוטב, with only the resh added. You can see this spelling in the writings of the rabbis who lived in Spain (see here for example of a responsa by the Rosh, who also mentioned Seville). But I was surprised to find that the name appears even in the Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot 115b:


יצחק ריש גלותא בר אחתיה דרב ביבי הוה קאזיל מקורטבא לאספמיא ושכיב

Yitzḥak the Exilarch, son of the sister of Rav Beivai, was walking from Cortva to Spain and died along the way. 


Jastrow claims that this was a Babylonian town, Kardu, also known as Karduniaš. But Steinsaltz, in his notes on Yevamot, writes that according to the context (which also mentions Spain), the town was likely Cordoba, which was an important city in Talmudic times. (Spain, or more precisely Hispania, did not always control Cordoba, so the trip from Cordoba to Spain could make sense depending on the time).

Ultimately, this was a theory by Bochart, writing in the 17th century, without access to modern research. Y comments:

Back to Cordoba, since Bochart's additional r is ad hoc, and since a city is unlikely to be named after a technical term referring to a part of an oil mill, the etymology can be rejected. The "Phoenician" part is also an unsupported speculative extrapolation.

While I'm certainly not fully convinced of the etymology, I'm a little more generous with the possibility than Y. If the kotev referred to the olive oil press in general, and since Spain has long been associated with olives and olive oil, it's not impossible that it was the source of the name. But whether Bochart was correct or not, I certainly appreciate the scholarship of my readers today, who are always ready to answer the questions that leave me puzzled.